Walka o władzę w kahałach krakowskim i podgórskim w okresie międzywojennym : żydowskie gminy wyznaniowe w Krakowie

2017
journal article
article
cris.lastimport.wos2024-04-10T00:12:58Z
dc.abstract.enDuring almost the entire interwar period, there were two separate Jewish communities in Kraków. One of them covered most of the city, the other only one district – Podgórze, which was a separate municipal entity until 1915. The basis of the legal status of these communities was an Austrian law from 21 March 1890 and the statues published on its basis (for Kraków – 1897, for Podgórze – 1898). The principles they established survived with minor modifications until 1928. At the head of the religious communities, commonly known as Kehillot, were collegiate elected bodies (a council in Kraków, an authority in Podgórze) and the executive chiefs appointed by them (a president in Kraków, a superior (leader) in Podgórze). The authorities of the Kehillot significantly influenced the life of the Jewish community, maintained contacts with authorities of the state and local government administrations, as well as with prominent political forces. For these and many other reasons, exercising power over the community was exceptionally important both for the religious and the political groups of the Jewish community, and Kehilla elections aroused much more emotion than local government or parliamentary elections. Members of the Kehillot were elected for a four-year term (six years in Podgórze), with a right to re-election. Until 1914, elections were held every two (three) years, during which half the council (authority) was elected. Both Kehillot were governed the entire time by a coalition of Polonised progressive Jews and moderate Orthodox Jews. Efforts made to break this system, among others by Zionists, were not successful. It was not until 1921 that the Kraków Kehilla was provisionally expanded by more than a dozen people – representatives of political groups that had heretofore not been involved in the authorities, but this did not solve the problem. Proper elections were conducted in 1924 on the basis of an outdated curial electoral law, under which only men older than 24 years had the right to vote. A struggle took place between the hitherto existing authorities, organised in the Jewish Civic Committee, which opposed the attempts to secularise the Jewish community and the United Association of National Jewish Factions, established on Zionist initiative, which emphasised the need to transform the Kehilla from a strictly religious organisation into a national representation. Despite the enormous organisational and propaganda effort made in both Kraków and Podgórze, the Zionists suffered a defeat. Five years later, the next election was held on the basis of a new, five-point – although still not very democratic – electoral law. Interest in the vote was exceptionally high, as evidenced by the significant number of electoral lists (15 in Kraków and 9 in Podgórze), issued by political groups, as well as social and professional organisations. This time, too, the assimilatory-Orthodox coalition groups won, although in both communities, the Zionists gained an entry into the authorities. At the end of the four-year term of office of both Kehillot, new elections were not held, as the state authorities decided to postpone them until the merger of the two communities. As a result, Kraków was governed by the Council elected in 1929 and Podgórze by the Interim Authority, established in 1933. The merger of the two communities took place at the beginning of 1937 and was headed by the Provisional Special Administration. This state lasted until the outbreak of World War II.pl
dc.affiliationWydział Historyczny : Instytut Historiipl
dc.contributor.authorBrzoza, Czesław - 127445 pl
dc.date.accessioned2019-05-20T12:54:06Z
dc.date.available2019-05-20T12:54:06Z
dc.date.issued2017pl
dc.date.openaccess0
dc.description.accesstimew momencie opublikowania
dc.description.additionalZeszyt z okazji 60-lecia istnienia muzeum w Starej Synagodze w Krakowie = Volume issued on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the museum in the Old Synagogue in Krakówpl
dc.description.number35pl
dc.description.physical57-78pl
dc.description.publication2,8pl
dc.description.versionostateczna wersja wydawcy
dc.identifier.doi10.32030/KRZY.2017.03pl
dc.identifier.issn0137-3129pl
dc.identifier.projectROD UJ / Opl
dc.identifier.urihttps://ruj.uj.edu.pl/xmlui/handle/item/75270
dc.languagepolpl
dc.language.containerpolpl
dc.rightsDodaję tylko opis bibliograficzny*
dc.rights.licenceOTHER
dc.rights.uri*
dc.share.typeotwarte czasopismo
dc.subject.plgmina krakowskapl
dc.subject.plwalka wyborczapl
dc.subject.plwybory kahalnepl
dc.subject.plradni gminy żydowskiejpl
dc.subject.plRafał Landaupl
dc.subject.plpołączenie gminpl
dc.subtypeArticlepl
dc.titleWalka o władzę w kahałach krakowskim i podgórskim w okresie międzywojennym : żydowskie gminy wyznaniowe w Krakowiepl
dc.title.alternativeThe struggle for power in the Krakow and Podgorze Kehhilot in the interwar period : Jewish religious communities in Krakowpl
dc.title.journalKrzysztoforypl
dc.typeJournalArticlepl
dspace.entity.typePublication
cris.lastimport.wos
2024-04-10T00:12:58Z
dc.abstract.enpl
During almost the entire interwar period, there were two separate Jewish communities in Kraków. One of them covered most of the city, the other only one district – Podgórze, which was a separate municipal entity until 1915. The basis of the legal status of these communities was an Austrian law from 21 March 1890 and the statues published on its basis (for Kraków – 1897, for Podgórze – 1898). The principles they established survived with minor modifications until 1928. At the head of the religious communities, commonly known as Kehillot, were collegiate elected bodies (a council in Kraków, an authority in Podgórze) and the executive chiefs appointed by them (a president in Kraków, a superior (leader) in Podgórze). The authorities of the Kehillot significantly influenced the life of the Jewish community, maintained contacts with authorities of the state and local government administrations, as well as with prominent political forces. For these and many other reasons, exercising power over the community was exceptionally important both for the religious and the political groups of the Jewish community, and Kehilla elections aroused much more emotion than local government or parliamentary elections. Members of the Kehillot were elected for a four-year term (six years in Podgórze), with a right to re-election. Until 1914, elections were held every two (three) years, during which half the council (authority) was elected. Both Kehillot were governed the entire time by a coalition of Polonised progressive Jews and moderate Orthodox Jews. Efforts made to break this system, among others by Zionists, were not successful. It was not until 1921 that the Kraków Kehilla was provisionally expanded by more than a dozen people – representatives of political groups that had heretofore not been involved in the authorities, but this did not solve the problem. Proper elections were conducted in 1924 on the basis of an outdated curial electoral law, under which only men older than 24 years had the right to vote. A struggle took place between the hitherto existing authorities, organised in the Jewish Civic Committee, which opposed the attempts to secularise the Jewish community and the United Association of National Jewish Factions, established on Zionist initiative, which emphasised the need to transform the Kehilla from a strictly religious organisation into a national representation. Despite the enormous organisational and propaganda effort made in both Kraków and Podgórze, the Zionists suffered a defeat. Five years later, the next election was held on the basis of a new, five-point – although still not very democratic – electoral law. Interest in the vote was exceptionally high, as evidenced by the significant number of electoral lists (15 in Kraków and 9 in Podgórze), issued by political groups, as well as social and professional organisations. This time, too, the assimilatory-Orthodox coalition groups won, although in both communities, the Zionists gained an entry into the authorities. At the end of the four-year term of office of both Kehillot, new elections were not held, as the state authorities decided to postpone them until the merger of the two communities. As a result, Kraków was governed by the Council elected in 1929 and Podgórze by the Interim Authority, established in 1933. The merger of the two communities took place at the beginning of 1937 and was headed by the Provisional Special Administration. This state lasted until the outbreak of World War II.
dc.affiliationpl
Wydział Historyczny : Instytut Historii
dc.contributor.authorpl
Brzoza, Czesław - 127445
dc.date.accessioned
2019-05-20T12:54:06Z
dc.date.available
2019-05-20T12:54:06Z
dc.date.issuedpl
2017
dc.date.openaccess
0
dc.description.accesstime
w momencie opublikowania
dc.description.additionalpl
Zeszyt z okazji 60-lecia istnienia muzeum w Starej Synagodze w Krakowie = Volume issued on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the museum in the Old Synagogue in Kraków
dc.description.numberpl
35
dc.description.physicalpl
57-78
dc.description.publicationpl
2,8
dc.description.version
ostateczna wersja wydawcy
dc.identifier.doipl
10.32030/KRZY.2017.03
dc.identifier.issnpl
0137-3129
dc.identifier.projectpl
ROD UJ / O
dc.identifier.uri
https://ruj.uj.edu.pl/xmlui/handle/item/75270
dc.languagepl
pol
dc.language.containerpl
pol
dc.rights*
Dodaję tylko opis bibliograficzny
dc.rights.licence
OTHER
dc.rights.uri*
dc.share.type
otwarte czasopismo
dc.subject.plpl
gmina krakowska
dc.subject.plpl
walka wyborcza
dc.subject.plpl
wybory kahalne
dc.subject.plpl
radni gminy żydowskiej
dc.subject.plpl
Rafał Landau
dc.subject.plpl
połączenie gmin
dc.subtypepl
Article
dc.titlepl
Walka o władzę w kahałach krakowskim i podgórskim w okresie międzywojennym : żydowskie gminy wyznaniowe w Krakowie
dc.title.alternativepl
The struggle for power in the Krakow and Podgorze Kehhilot in the interwar period : Jewish religious communities in Krakow
dc.title.journalpl
Krzysztofory
dc.typepl
JournalArticle
dspace.entity.type
Publication
Affiliations

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