Some remarks on war rituals in Archaic Italy and Rome and the beginnings of Roman Imperialism

2014
journal article
article
dc.abstract.enThe success of Roman expansion in the Republican period and the durability of the empire, which survived the fall of the Republic and continued to function for the next few hundred years under the rule of emperors, drew the attention of both scholars and rulers in subsequent eras. The Imperium Romanum became a model for other states that attempted to build their own empires in later times. What captures our attention in discussions on Roman imperialism is mainly one, so far unresolved, dilemma: was Roman expansion a result of the material and psychological benefits that individual social groups enjoyed as a result of the aggressive policy, or a product of the Roman society’s atavistic tendencies for using violence? This seems to be a very difficult question to answer. If we also consider other elements that cause aggression, such as fright, fear (metus Gallicus, Punicus, Etruscus, etc.) of something or someone and a desire to win fame or glory over an enemy, then solving the problem seems impossible indeed. Finding the right answer is not made any easier by the historical sources. On the one hand, they are very biased, as they hide the actual reasons under a thick layer of propaganda and apologetic slogans; so thick, in fact, that in many cases the Romans’ true motives seem incomprehensible. The majority of available accounts present the Romans as the defenders of the weak and their allies. This is the result of a strong propaganda rhetoric used by the Romans in order to justify themselves in contemporary eyes and in posterity too. We should also note one more element that could have had an influence on the development of an imperial mentality in Rome, i.e. the broadly defined civilisation and cultural milieu in which Rome came to be – Italy. A cursory comparison of various Roman war rites with the rituals of other inhabitants of Italy indicates that war was very much a part of the mentality of Italic communities. The presence of war rites in Italic tribes suggests that in Italy, war was an important element of existence. Rome was an integral part of this world, which meant that the presence of a strong military component and aggressiveness in the life of the Roman community was naturalpl
dc.affiliationWydział Historycznypl
dc.contributor.authorPiegdoń, Maciej - 173747 pl
dc.date.accessioned2015-04-27T14:32:12Z
dc.date.available2015-04-27T14:32:12Z
dc.date.issued2014pl
dc.date.openaccess0
dc.description.accesstimepo opublikowaniu
dc.description.physical87-97pl
dc.description.publication1pl
dc.description.versionostateczna wersja wydawcy
dc.description.volume21pl
dc.identifier.doi10.4467/20800909EL.14.001.2781pl
dc.identifier.eissn2084-3909pl
dc.identifier.isbn978-83-233-3857-4pl
dc.identifier.issn1897-3426pl
dc.identifier.projectROD UJ / Ppl
dc.identifier.urihttp://ruj.uj.edu.pl/xmlui/handle/item/5885
dc.languageengpl
dc.language.containerengpl
dc.rightsDozwolony użytek utworów chronionych*
dc.rights.licenceOTHER
dc.rights.urihttp://ruj.uj.edu.pl/4dspace/License/copyright/licencja_copyright.pdf*
dc.share.typeotwarte czasopismo
dc.subject.enRoman imperialismpl
dc.subject.enRoman expansionpl
dc.subject.enwar ritualspl
dc.subject.enbellum iustumpl
dc.subject.endevotiopl
dc.subject.enclarigatiopl
dc.subject.enius fetialepl
dc.subtypeArticlepl
dc.titleSome remarks on war rituals in Archaic Italy and Rome and the beginnings of Roman Imperialismpl
dc.title.journalElectrumpl
dc.title.volumeReligion and politics in the Greco-Roman worldpl
dc.typeJournalArticlepl
dspace.entity.typePublication
dc.abstract.enpl
The success of Roman expansion in the Republican period and the durability of the empire, which survived the fall of the Republic and continued to function for the next few hundred years under the rule of emperors, drew the attention of both scholars and rulers in subsequent eras. The Imperium Romanum became a model for other states that attempted to build their own empires in later times. What captures our attention in discussions on Roman imperialism is mainly one, so far unresolved, dilemma: was Roman expansion a result of the material and psychological benefits that individual social groups enjoyed as a result of the aggressive policy, or a product of the Roman society’s atavistic tendencies for using violence? This seems to be a very difficult question to answer. If we also consider other elements that cause aggression, such as fright, fear (metus Gallicus, Punicus, Etruscus, etc.) of something or someone and a desire to win fame or glory over an enemy, then solving the problem seems impossible indeed. Finding the right answer is not made any easier by the historical sources. On the one hand, they are very biased, as they hide the actual reasons under a thick layer of propaganda and apologetic slogans; so thick, in fact, that in many cases the Romans’ true motives seem incomprehensible. The majority of available accounts present the Romans as the defenders of the weak and their allies. This is the result of a strong propaganda rhetoric used by the Romans in order to justify themselves in contemporary eyes and in posterity too. We should also note one more element that could have had an influence on the development of an imperial mentality in Rome, i.e. the broadly defined civilisation and cultural milieu in which Rome came to be – Italy. A cursory comparison of various Roman war rites with the rituals of other inhabitants of Italy indicates that war was very much a part of the mentality of Italic communities. The presence of war rites in Italic tribes suggests that in Italy, war was an important element of existence. Rome was an integral part of this world, which meant that the presence of a strong military component and aggressiveness in the life of the Roman community was natural
dc.affiliationpl
Wydział Historyczny
dc.contributor.authorpl
Piegdoń, Maciej - 173747
dc.date.accessioned
2015-04-27T14:32:12Z
dc.date.available
2015-04-27T14:32:12Z
dc.date.issuedpl
2014
dc.date.openaccess
0
dc.description.accesstime
po opublikowaniu
dc.description.physicalpl
87-97
dc.description.publicationpl
1
dc.description.version
ostateczna wersja wydawcy
dc.description.volumepl
21
dc.identifier.doipl
10.4467/20800909EL.14.001.2781
dc.identifier.eissnpl
2084-3909
dc.identifier.isbnpl
978-83-233-3857-4
dc.identifier.issnpl
1897-3426
dc.identifier.projectpl
ROD UJ / P
dc.identifier.uri
http://ruj.uj.edu.pl/xmlui/handle/item/5885
dc.languagepl
eng
dc.language.containerpl
eng
dc.rights*
Dozwolony użytek utworów chronionych
dc.rights.licence
OTHER
dc.rights.uri*
http://ruj.uj.edu.pl/4dspace/License/copyright/licencja_copyright.pdf
dc.share.type
otwarte czasopismo
dc.subject.enpl
Roman imperialism
dc.subject.enpl
Roman expansion
dc.subject.enpl
war rituals
dc.subject.enpl
bellum iustum
dc.subject.enpl
devotio
dc.subject.enpl
clarigatio
dc.subject.enpl
ius fetiale
dc.subtypepl
Article
dc.titlepl
Some remarks on war rituals in Archaic Italy and Rome and the beginnings of Roman Imperialism
dc.title.journalpl
Electrum
dc.title.volumepl
Religion and politics in the Greco-Roman world
dc.typepl
JournalArticle
dspace.entity.type
Publication
Affiliations

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