Rząd Mariana Zyndrama-Kościałkowskiego 13 X 1935–15 V 1936 : pierwszy gabinet powołany w dobie obowiązywania Konstytucji kwietniowej

2016
journal article
article
cris.lastimport.wos2024-04-09T22:17:50Z
dc.abstract.enThe Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski Government, was the first appointed cabinet after the entry into force of the April constitution of 1935. Deputy Prime Minister Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski played a decisive role in many of the government’s economic cases. The government concentrated on the economic recovery of the country. A certain economic recovery took place in the agricultural sector; a rise in the prices of plants grown for industrial purposes was registered, as well as of animals, and, from the spring of 1936, cereal crops. After a certain stagnation, the department of agriculture hastened the completion of agricultural reform. As a result of the rise in the incomes of agricultural producers and the increases in purchases of manufactured goods by the population of the villages, a growth in industrial manufacturing accelerated automatically. Apart from that the Council of Ministers decided to introduce a reform of the income tax system (including the extraordinary payroll tax), as a measure to increase the income of the state treasury. This brought additional earnings of 288 m PLN into the state treasury. The budget balance for 1935/1936 amounted to a deficit of 263 m PLN, but the budget for the following year was drawn up in such a way that the deficit was liquidated entirely (!) since the cuts in expenditures, and the limited reform of taxes made up for more than 100 m PLN. The government’s announcements of anticipated rapid improvements in the economic situation of the society in the autumn of 1935 turned out to be a big mistake. When the expected recovery failed to materialize, a wave of protests poured over the country in the spring of 1936. Admittedly, the government, through increased taxes and quite drastic cuts in state expenditures, succeeded in reducing the country’s budget deficit, but it simultaneously produced universal dissatisfaction in the society which had to incur serious costs due to such policies. As a result, in spite of the growth in industrial production and a reduction in unemployment, the population started withdrawing its deposits on a large scale, and exchanging them for gold and foreign currencies. In the spring of 1936 the government implemented a ban on the transport of mottos, as well as one on trade in foreign currencies and gold. It also put sharp restrictions on the exchangeability of Polish currency into gold and mottos, and suspended the transfer of foreign loans. All these measures were admittedly necessary, but they came too late to save the country from hemorrhaging foreign exchange. In commercial litigation cases, however, this was the first government to overcome a profound economic crisis.pl
dc.contributor.authorGoclon, Jacekpl
dc.date.accessioned2020-03-06T11:42:14Z
dc.date.available2020-03-06T11:42:14Z
dc.date.issued2016pl
dc.date.openaccess12
dc.description.accesstimepo opublikowaniu
dc.description.additionalBibliogr. s. 564-566pl
dc.description.number4pl
dc.description.physical547-566pl
dc.description.publication1,74pl
dc.description.versionostateczna wersja wydawcy
dc.description.volume9pl
dc.identifier.doi10.4467/20844131KS.16.028.6328pl
dc.identifier.eissn2084-4131pl
dc.identifier.issn2084-4115pl
dc.identifier.projectROD UJ / OPpl
dc.identifier.urihttps://ruj.uj.edu.pl/xmlui/handle/item/151186
dc.languagepolpl
dc.language.containerpolpl
dc.rightsDozwolony użytek utworów chronionych*
dc.rights.licenceOTHER
dc.rights.urihttp://ruj.uj.edu.pl/4dspace/License/copyright/licencja_copyright.pdf*
dc.share.typeotwarte czasopismo
dc.subject.endissolving cartel contracts and cartelspl
dc.subject.enprice reductions of cartel articlespl
dc.subject.entax increasespl
dc.subject.encuts in expenditures of state agenciespl
dc.subject.engrowth of industrial productionpl
dc.subject.enimprovement of the situation in the agricultural sectorpl
dc.subject.enprecipitating the implementation of agricultural reformpl
dc.subject.enexchange restrictionspl
dc.subject.enthe exchangeability of Polish currency to goldpl
dc.subject.enliquidation of the country’s budget defi citpl
dc.subject.enovercoming an economic crisispl
dc.subject.plrozwiązanie umów kartelowych i kartelipl
dc.subject.plobniżka cen artykułów kartelowychpl
dc.subject.plpodwyższenie podatkówpl
dc.subject.plzmniejszenie wydatków organów państwowychpl
dc.subject.plwzrost produkcji przemysłowejpl
dc.subject.plpoprawa sytuacji w rolnictwiepl
dc.subject.plprzyspieszenie realizacji reformy rolnejpl
dc.subject.plograniczenia dewizowepl
dc.subject.plzniesienie wymienialności polskiej waluty na złotopl
dc.subject.pllikwidacja deficytu budżetowegopl
dc.subject.plprzezwyciężenie kryzysu ekonomicznegopl
dc.subtypeArticlepl
dc.titleRząd Mariana Zyndrama-Kościałkowskiego 13 X 1935–15 V 1936 : pierwszy gabinet powołany w dobie obowiązywania Konstytucji kwietniowejpl
dc.title.alternativeThe Government of Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski october 13, 1935 – May 15, 1936 : the first cabinet appointed during the period of force of the april constitutionpl
dc.title.journalKrakowskie Studia z Historii Państwa i Prawapl
dc.typeJournalArticlepl
dspace.entity.typePublication
cris.lastimport.wos
2024-04-09T22:17:50Z
dc.abstract.enpl
The Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski Government, was the first appointed cabinet after the entry into force of the April constitution of 1935. Deputy Prime Minister Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski played a decisive role in many of the government’s economic cases. The government concentrated on the economic recovery of the country. A certain economic recovery took place in the agricultural sector; a rise in the prices of plants grown for industrial purposes was registered, as well as of animals, and, from the spring of 1936, cereal crops. After a certain stagnation, the department of agriculture hastened the completion of agricultural reform. As a result of the rise in the incomes of agricultural producers and the increases in purchases of manufactured goods by the population of the villages, a growth in industrial manufacturing accelerated automatically. Apart from that the Council of Ministers decided to introduce a reform of the income tax system (including the extraordinary payroll tax), as a measure to increase the income of the state treasury. This brought additional earnings of 288 m PLN into the state treasury. The budget balance for 1935/1936 amounted to a deficit of 263 m PLN, but the budget for the following year was drawn up in such a way that the deficit was liquidated entirely (!) since the cuts in expenditures, and the limited reform of taxes made up for more than 100 m PLN. The government’s announcements of anticipated rapid improvements in the economic situation of the society in the autumn of 1935 turned out to be a big mistake. When the expected recovery failed to materialize, a wave of protests poured over the country in the spring of 1936. Admittedly, the government, through increased taxes and quite drastic cuts in state expenditures, succeeded in reducing the country’s budget deficit, but it simultaneously produced universal dissatisfaction in the society which had to incur serious costs due to such policies. As a result, in spite of the growth in industrial production and a reduction in unemployment, the population started withdrawing its deposits on a large scale, and exchanging them for gold and foreign currencies. In the spring of 1936 the government implemented a ban on the transport of mottos, as well as one on trade in foreign currencies and gold. It also put sharp restrictions on the exchangeability of Polish currency into gold and mottos, and suspended the transfer of foreign loans. All these measures were admittedly necessary, but they came too late to save the country from hemorrhaging foreign exchange. In commercial litigation cases, however, this was the first government to overcome a profound economic crisis.
dc.contributor.authorpl
Goclon, Jacek
dc.date.accessioned
2020-03-06T11:42:14Z
dc.date.available
2020-03-06T11:42:14Z
dc.date.issuedpl
2016
dc.date.openaccess
12
dc.description.accesstime
po opublikowaniu
dc.description.additionalpl
Bibliogr. s. 564-566
dc.description.numberpl
4
dc.description.physicalpl
547-566
dc.description.publicationpl
1,74
dc.description.version
ostateczna wersja wydawcy
dc.description.volumepl
9
dc.identifier.doipl
10.4467/20844131KS.16.028.6328
dc.identifier.eissnpl
2084-4131
dc.identifier.issnpl
2084-4115
dc.identifier.projectpl
ROD UJ / OP
dc.identifier.uri
https://ruj.uj.edu.pl/xmlui/handle/item/151186
dc.languagepl
pol
dc.language.containerpl
pol
dc.rights*
Dozwolony użytek utworów chronionych
dc.rights.licence
OTHER
dc.rights.uri*
http://ruj.uj.edu.pl/4dspace/License/copyright/licencja_copyright.pdf
dc.share.type
otwarte czasopismo
dc.subject.enpl
dissolving cartel contracts and cartels
dc.subject.enpl
price reductions of cartel articles
dc.subject.enpl
tax increases
dc.subject.enpl
cuts in expenditures of state agencies
dc.subject.enpl
growth of industrial production
dc.subject.enpl
improvement of the situation in the agricultural sector
dc.subject.enpl
precipitating the implementation of agricultural reform
dc.subject.enpl
exchange restrictions
dc.subject.enpl
the exchangeability of Polish currency to gold
dc.subject.enpl
liquidation of the country’s budget defi cit
dc.subject.enpl
overcoming an economic crisis
dc.subject.plpl
rozwiązanie umów kartelowych i karteli
dc.subject.plpl
obniżka cen artykułów kartelowych
dc.subject.plpl
podwyższenie podatków
dc.subject.plpl
zmniejszenie wydatków organów państwowych
dc.subject.plpl
wzrost produkcji przemysłowej
dc.subject.plpl
poprawa sytuacji w rolnictwie
dc.subject.plpl
przyspieszenie realizacji reformy rolnej
dc.subject.plpl
ograniczenia dewizowe
dc.subject.plpl
zniesienie wymienialności polskiej waluty na złoto
dc.subject.plpl
likwidacja deficytu budżetowego
dc.subject.plpl
przezwyciężenie kryzysu ekonomicznego
dc.subtypepl
Article
dc.titlepl
Rząd Mariana Zyndrama-Kościałkowskiego 13 X 1935–15 V 1936 : pierwszy gabinet powołany w dobie obowiązywania Konstytucji kwietniowej
dc.title.alternativepl
The Government of Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski october 13, 1935 – May 15, 1936 : the first cabinet appointed during the period of force of the april constitution
dc.title.journalpl
Krakowskie Studia z Historii Państwa i Prawa
dc.typepl
JournalArticle
dspace.entity.type
Publication
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